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The Ape in the Mirror– Primates and Human Nature– Doubting the Chimpanzee Model– In Search of Primate Continuity5. The natural world lies below and beneath us, a cause for shame, disgust, or alarm; something smelly and messy to be hidden behind closed doors, drawn curtains, and minty freshness. A theory of leadership in human cooperative groups Journal of Theoretical Biology Available online 2 June 2010. Voluntary or 'integrative' models, on the other hand, suggest that rank differentiation—the differentiation of leader from follower, ruler from ruled, or state from subject—may sometimes be preferred over more egalitarian social arrangements as a solution to the challenges of life in social groups, such as conflict over resources, coordination failures, and free-riding in cooperative relationships. In an endnote in his 1996 book, , he writes, “On the basis of her reading of the literature, Power (1991) has argued that provisioning at some field sites (such as Gombe’s banana camp) turned the chimpanzees more violent and less egalitarian, and thus changed the ‘tone’ of relationships both within and between communities. Borofsky (2005) offers a balanced account of the controversy and the context in which it occurred.


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